Archive for the ‘In the news’ category

Vaxxed versus unvaxxed children: What a real study shows

July 26, 2017

The Pediatric Insider

© 2017 Roy Benaroch, MD

You may have seen it on Facebook: A published study claiming to be “The First Ever” comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated children supposedly showed that vaccinated children are more likely to have a number of health problems. Let me promise you: there’s nothing to worry about here. The study is one of those garbage-in-garbage-out whackjobs that’s almost indescribably bad and unreliable. And: a much better study of the same thing – children who are vaccinated, versus children who are not vaccinated – shows that there are not any worrisome risks. The long-term health of vaccinated children is just fine, and even better than unvaccinated kids (because they don’t have to suffer through vaccine-preventable diseases.)

Let’s cover the good study, first. It was published in 2011, and tracked over 13,000 randomly selected children in Germany, tracking their health status and correlating that with their documented vaccine histories. The authors could find no examples of any increased risks of infectious or allergic diseases in the vaccinated children.

And now, this more-recent, execrable study. They didn’t use randomly selected children. What it actually compared were the 666 children of homeschoolers who chose to complete the survey (which was promoted on antivaccine websites), using their self-reports of vaccine histories and health status. Of these, 40% hadn’t been vaccinated, at least according to the surveys. No attempt was made to track who received the survey, what percentage of respondents completed it, and what kind of respondents completed it. Do you think it’s possible that a high proportion of vaccine-distrusting parents would complete a survey like this? Hint: if you did a survey of musical tastes at a Justin Bieber concern, you’re not going to find many Cab Calloway fans.

The “study” was really just a survey, and a biased one at that – a survey among people who were guaranteed to say exactly what the study authors wanted them to say. It had already been retracted, once previously (and, laughably, by a bottom-feeding journal that looks like it requires authors to pay to publish their studies. This isn’t the way legit journals work.)

Vaccines are safe, and they save lives. Make sure your kids are fully vaccinated. Don’t believe the Facebook rumors, or idiocy dressed up like science – what the real science shows is what parents should feel confident about. There’s no need to worry about vaccines.

A more detailed evaluation of this fakakta survey is here, and here’s more information about reliable vaxxed versus unvaxxed studies. Yes, they’ve been done before. Yes, they consistently show that vaccines are safe and that vaccinated children are healthy.

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Expired Epipens are better than nothing

May 15, 2017

The Pediatric Insider

© 2017 Roy Benaroch, MD

A small study published this month showed that most Epipens retain their potency for at least 4 years after their expiration date. That’s no guarantee, of course. I’d still recommend as a “best practice” that families replace them as they expire. But it’s reassuring to know that they’ll usually be effective even when expired. And using an expired Epipen is almost certainly better than using nothing when there’s a life-threatening allergic reaction.

It’s a simple enough study. Over 2 weeks, families attending a clinic in California were asked to donate expired Epipens for analysis. They collected 40 devices that had expired up to 50 months before the study, and used state-of-the-art chemical analysis to determine the potency of the medication in the vials. None of them looked discolored or unsafe. All of the pens that had expired up to 2 and half years ago had at least 89% of their original potency, and even most of the older ones remained in the 85% range. Though overall the dose potency slowly deteriorated, all of these devices would have still been helpful to treat an anaphylactic reaction.

A few small previous studies reached similar conclusions in 2015 and 2000. Though these studies looked at the Epipen brand of auto-injectors, it’s likely that studies of similar or generic products would yield the same results.

The authors of the study aren’t recommending that families hoard Epipens, or delay replacing them – but they do point out that their findings support further studies to extend the labeled shelf life of these products. And if an expired Epipen is all you’ve got, it’s probably OK to use it as long as it’s not obviously broken or discolored.

To help keep your Epipens in good shape, store them somewhere relatively cool (not cold), and away from light, preferably in the original packaging. Do not leave them in your car in the summer. Epinephrine is a finicky sort of chemical, and light and heat will speed its deterioration. Although you can hold on to expired Epipens as a “backup”, it’s best to replace them so you’re 100% sure that you’ve got what you need when you need it.

 

Simplified CPR – without mouth-to-mouth – can save children’s lives

May 1, 2017

The Pediatric Insider

© 2017 Roy Benaroch, MD

Quick action is essential if someone has a sudden cardiac arrest. You might be in Target, or on a bus, or in a classroom when someone nearby just drops to the ground. Or maybe you’re boating, and you help pull a drowning victim out of the water. What do you do next?

CPR training is a great way to learn the steps, and I strongly encourage it for all parents and everyone else. But we know that many bystanders are unable to perform CPR when it’s needed. There’s panic and indecision and trying to remember what to do. To make it more possible for anyone to help, the old-school ABCs of CPR (Airway, Breathing,  Circulation) have been simplified. The current recommendations for CPR in most situations is just a few steps:

  1. Check if the victim is OK. Ask “Are you OK?” and give a little shake. If the person doesn’t respond, you need to act quickly.
  2. Call for help or call 911.
  3. Start pushing the middle of the chest down, over and over, fast and hard, until help arrives. If someone can bring over an automatic defibrillator, use it.

Those are all the steps. Rescue breathing has been deemphasized (it can still be used by trained people, if CPR is prolonged, or in some other situations.) Checking pulses and breathing isn’t necessary. It turns out that doing something (calling for help and starting chest compressions) is better than doing nothing.

However, there’s been some concern that compression-only CPR may not be as effective for children. Kids don’t have the same kind of arrests as adults (they’re much less likely to have a heart attack, for instance.) A new study from Japan shows that compression-only CPR is probably about as effective as traditional CPR in children – and it’s far better than doing nothing.

In Japan, all out-of-hospital arrests are recorded in a tracking database. Researchers looked at all of these events from 2011 to 2012 in children from age 1 to 18 (infants less than 1 were excluded.) This was at a time when compression-only CPR was being promoted for use by bystanders in Japan. Data had been collected regarding whether CPR was performed, and what kind; and the study authors tracked down all of the child victims to see how they were doing 1 month after their event. A good outcome was considered to be living with with normal or nearly normal neurologic function.

Overall, 2,157 children experienced a cardiac arrest over 2 years. The most common causes were from drowning and trauma. About ½ of the time, no CPR was performed; among the 1,150 who received CPR, 733 had compression-only CPR. The authors were then able to compare the outcomes.

The overall chance of a favorable outcome for all of these children was 10% (which is about what we’d expect for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests.) When the causes and severity of the arrests were controlled, conventional CPR provided a 18% good outcome, compression-only CPR 16%, and no CPR 4%.

So: doing anything was far better than doing nothing at all. It’s still unclear what the “best” CPR for children should be, and further studies will likely work that out. But we know now that simple, compression-only CPR is about as good as full-scale, mouth-to-mouth+compression CPR. If you’re not sure what to do, just push on that chest, fast and hard, until help arrives.

The best way to learn CPR is a hands-on, in-person course with a qualified instructor. There are some good alternatives if you’re in a hurry. The CPR anytime course can teach you the basics online in about 20 minutes. If you don’t have the time for that, watch this brief video about compression-only CPR. Remember, you don’t have to remember everything, and you don’t need to be perfect. Call for help, and then push – hard and fast. You can save a life.

Vaccinations are the best immune booster

April 26, 2017

The Pediatric Insider

© 2017 Roy Benaroch, MD

The human immune system is an amazing thing. There are thousands of microorganisms – millions, maybe – that are lurking out there, eager to make you sick. You breathe them in. They’re in every bite of food, and all over your hands when you rub your nose. We live in constant bombardment.

And they’re sneaky, too – with changing DNA and proteins to fool us. We’ve got soap and water and some pretty good antibiotics to fight them off, but, really, the vast majority of the work to keep us healthy is done by our own immune systems.

Wouldn’t it be nice to give your immune system a boost, to help it fight off infections? We know moderate (but not heavy) exercise can help, as can a good night’s sleep. What about those “immune booster” vitamin packs they sell? Hint: there’s a reason they say right on the package that they don’t prevent or treat any disease. Save your money.

Another idea: you can just get sick, and at least the next time around your immune system can recognize the germ and fight it off more effectively. Of course, you have to get sick first to enjoy those benefits. And some of those sicknesses can be pretty serious. Or might kill you. Still, no pain no gain, right?

Wrong. There’s a great way to get a real immune boost – a way to help your own immune system, or that of your children, fight off diseases without having to get sick first. They’re vaccinations. They give your immune system a glimpse, a quick safe view, of an infection in a way that won’t make you sick, but will still teach your immune system to recognize the infection if you ever have to fight it off. It’s the best way to prepare your immune army for battle against the infectious enemy, in a way that’s almost risk-free.

Get your sleep and exercise, and eat tasty, home-made foods. Grow a vegetable garden. Hug your kids. Sing like no one is listening, and dance like no one is watching. And vaccinate, too.  These are all great ways to keep your children happy, healthy, and safe.

National Infant Immunization Week Blog-a-thon with woman holding baby. #ivax2protect

Breastfeeding and vaccinations protect your baby in different ways

April 24, 2017

The Pediatric Insider

© 2017 Roy Benaroch, MD

“Since I’m nursing my baby, she’s getting all of the antibodies in my breast milk. Doesn’t that protect her the same way vaccines do?”

There are antibodies in breast milk, and they can help protect your baby from some kinds of infections. But those kinds of antibodies are different from the ones your baby will make herself after vaccinations. Breastfeeding contributes to one kind of protection, but the protection from vaccines is more powerful and longer-lasting.

Antibodies (also called “immunoglobulins”) are proteins that are part of your immune system. They work by attaching to invading microorganisms and viruses, which helps signal your immune system to attack. Antibodies have to be specific to each kind of infection—one antibody doesn’t fight multiple germs—and your immune system learns how to make different antibodies based on your body’s exposures to infections.

There are two ways for your baby to get antibodies. She can get them passively, from mom, either across the placenta or via breastmilk. Both are important. Placental antibodies are IgGs, which circulate in the blood. These kinds of antibodies help fight off invasive diseases. After a baby is born, placental IgG antibodies fade away over several months. Moms can boost their own ability to give these IgGs by being vaccinated, themselves, during pregnancy (that’s why moms should get influenza and pertussis vaccines while they’re still pregnant.) Breast milk contains a different kind of antibody, IgAs, which aren’t found in the blood. They are a part of intestinal and respiratory mucus, protecting people from infections before they get to the blood. The effect of these IgA antibodies in breastmilk is especially important in the developing world, where safe water and food is harder to find, and where moms have especially high titers of their own antibodies from ongoing infectious exposures.

The other way for babies to get antibodies is to make them on their own. To learn to do this, they must either be exposed to the infection, or get an immune-boosting “glimpse” of the infection by receiving a vaccine. That’s the point of vaccines: to allow someone to make their own strong, protective antibodies without the risk of having to suffer through the disease. These antibodies, made after “active immunization”, are of very high titers and are long-lasting – in some cases, for a lifetime. They’re much more protective than the passive antibodies gained across the placenta or through breast milk.

Bottom line: families can help protect their babies from infection in many ways. Sick people should be kept away from newborns. Moms should get their own recommended vaccines. Nursing can help (though in the developed world, the impact of nursing on infections is modest.) And babies should get their own vaccines, as recommended, on schedule, to get the best possible protection.

National Infant Immunization Week Blog-a-thon with woman holding baby. #ivax2protect

Great news about pertussis protection for newborns: Vaccinate mom!

April 3, 2017

The Pediatric Insider

© 2017 Roy Benaroch, MD

Pertussis (AKA “whooping cough”) is a nasty bear of an illness in older children and adults. People with pertussis cough for about 100 days – and it’s a horrible cough that sometimes makes people puke, pass out, or wet their pants. Seriously. Three months of that.

But it’s even worse for little babies, especially newborns, who just don’t have the lung power to expel the mucus. They cough, sure, but a lot of them get encephalitis and seizures, and some of them just stop breathing. So it’s especially important to protect the youngest babies.

Rates of pertussis have been climbing, in part because the newer vaccine that we started using in the 1990s doesn’t seem to give as lasting immunity as the old-school, whole-cell vaccine of earlier days. And as more pertussis circulates in communities, it’s the little babies who suffer the most. Pertussis vaccines are given to babies at 2, 4, and 6 months – and that means they build own protection slowly over the first year. Fortunately, a study published today shows that we can prevent most cases of newborn pertussis – even in babies too young to have gotten the full benefit of their own vaccines.

Researchers from the Kaiser Group of Northern California looked at records of all of the babies born at their facilities from 2000-2015 (those years spanned two big California pertussis outbreaks, in 2010 and 2014.) They hypothesized that a strategy of vaccinating pregnant women against pertussis, recommended since 2011, would help prevent pertussis in their newborns. Since people enrolled in Kaiser get all of their care at Kaiser locations, they could track which babies caught pertussis and they could tell which moms got a dose of pertussis vaccine during pregnancy.

They had a lot of babies to track – about 150,000. 17 of those babies caught pertussis in the first 2 months of their lives, and 110 caught it within the first year. The authors compared the rates of pertussis among babies whose mom got the Tdap (tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis) vaccine during pregnancy versus those who did not.

Of the 17 newborns less than 2 months with pertussis, only 1 had a mom who was vaccinated during pregnancy – working out to a vaccine effectiveness of about 90%. Looking down the road as the babies got older and received their own doses of pertussis vaccine, the effectiveness of maternal Tdap remained strong throughout the first year. There were no signs that maternal vaccination interfered with the effectiveness of the babies’ vaccines.

This is great news – an easy and effective easy way to prevent a potentially devastating disease of young babies. Previous studies have shown that this vaccine is also very safe for both pregnant women and their babies. Keep your babies safe – make sure, moms, you get a dose of Tdap during every pregnancy.

Homemade slime isn’t hurting your child

March 20, 2017

The Pediatric Insider

© 2017 Roy Benaroch, MD

Another day, another internet scare. This time it’s about that homemade slime, and all the toxins and poisons in it – the ones that are pretty much killing our kids. Except there aren’t any toxins, and kids aren’t getting sick.

This rumor started with an article from the Daily Mail, a British “newspaper” that Wikipedia has deemed “generally unreliable.” In the fine tradition of crappy supermarket tabloids, the Daily Mail is on a par with the National Enquirer, the Star, the Sun, and Weekly World News – it’s a site that makes stuff up, or blows things crazy out of proportion to sell newspapers. Admit it – you were tempted to buy that cheap paper that proclaimed that Hillary was from Venus, or that there’s a Miracle Cream that Allows People to Grow a Sixth Toe. The story was amplified by a blog post at “This talk ain’t cheap”, where the author points out in the second sentence that she’s “not a doctor or a scientist or a chemist.”

As is the manner of clickbait about things hurting children, this one has been posted -n- reposted on Facebook and parenting blogs. In an effort to make sure the barn door is firmly bolted shut now that the horses are long gone, let me give you the quick version: there’s nothing in homemade slime that’s likely to hurt anyone, as long as it’s “used as directed.” Don’t eat the stuff, rub it in your eyes, or lie in a bathtub of it for an hour. Other than that, it’s safe.

We’ve still got an unopened box of borax and bottles of glue downstairs from my youngest’s “slime phase” last year. You mix up a bunch of chemicals (See! Chemicals! That’s your first warning, right there!!) to make a sort of gooey, hand-clinging, squishy mess. It even makes comical sounds when you squarsh it around between your hands. Harmless fun?

The Daily Mail article focuses on one ingredient in homemade slime, pointing out that boric acid (Borax) is labeled by the European Chemicals Agency as ‘toxic to reproduction’, and potentially irritating to eyes and lungs. The box in my basement says those things, too. Don’t eat it, and don’t rub it in your eyes, and don’t stick your face in the box and whiff it. If your children are too young to handle this on their own, they probably shouldn’t be making slime without supervision. Apart from the breathless and frightening tone, The Daily Mail’s critique of Borax is at least reasonably close to the truth. It’s conceivable that an unsupervised or particularly reckless child could get hurt by the stuff. It’s also possible that some kids could have more-sensitive skin, and could end up with a rash or the itchies (do I need to say: if your child gets irritated skin after playing with slime, he or she should stop playing with slime. The same is true if your child gets itchy skin after petting a cat or eating finger-fuls of cookie dough.)

But the blog post goes a step further, heading off the rails of the worry train. The blogger points out imaginary dangers of other ingredients, like glue. She says white glue – essentially, Elmer’s – can cause anxiety, convulsions, seizures (both convulsions AND seizures!), respiratory failure, and loss of appetite. Except none of this is true. In the manner of googlers-who-call-themselves-researchers everywhere, the author mistakes one kind of glue for another. Elmer’s white glue causes sticky hands, but is otherwise non toxic. What she’s quoting are side effects of huffing industrial glue or model cement, which is a different product entirely, and is not an ingredient in homemade slime.

There’s also shaving cream – which the blogger implies contains carcinogens and “very controversial” ingredients. I think of it as something people rub on their faces (men, typically), legs (often women), or all over the walls of the shower (children). If you’re afraid of your children touching shaving cream, I cannot help you.

By the way, homemade slime also contains water (AKA deadly dihydrogen monoxide) and often food coloring (I believe green is best, but mixing green and purple makes a hideous and wonderful color called “ocky” that has a certain charm.) A complete recipe is here. You can also make it with other, non-borax compounds like cornstarch or laundry detergent.

Parents, if your kids are taking a break from their iPhones to do something fun and icky with their hands, let them enjoy themselves. It may get messy, and you don’t want them (or the dog, or even the cat) eating their homemade slime. But it’s pretty much harmless fun. Today’s lesson: don’t let the internet scare you.