Posted tagged ‘contagion’

How to transmit influenza to your friends and enemies

January 11, 2013

The Pediatric Insider

© 2013 Roy Benaroch, MD

Influenza has hit, and hit hard. This year is shaping up to be one of the worst years in memory. Flu is now widespread in almost every state, and we may not yet have hit the peak.

You know it’s gotten bad when CNN routinely shows video of people walking around in surgical masks. Is it likely that wearing a mask will really help?

Flu is a specific virus—it’s not just a bad cold. Every winter there’s a surge in cases, though some winters are worse than others. The virus is transmitted in blobs of mucus expelled by people. If you’ve got the flu, you started spreading the germ one day before you got sick, and you’ll probably keep shedding virus around for about 5 days after the fever starts.

The mucus that contains the flu virus can fly out of your nose or mouth, and can infect anyone who gets that mucus in their eyes, nose, or mouth. The coughed particles don’t travel far. To transmit flu via the air, your victim has to be standing within about three feet. Anyone further than three feet away probably won’t catch flu, even if they’re coughed or sneezed on.

So airborne spread is possible, but only within about three feet. More commonly, flu is spread through the contamination of surfaces. Here’s how it works:

1.     Johnny’s got the flu.
2.     He sneezes on his hands.
3.     Johnny touches a doorknob.
4.     His sister Sarah touches the same doorknob.
5.     Sarah rubs her eye with the same hand that has Johnny’s flu germs from the doorknob.
6.     Boom. Sarah’s got the flu.

There’s a lot of steps that have to take place, and at every step there are things to do to prevent transmission:

1. Johnny’s got the flu. Preventing Johnny from getting the flu is an important step in preventing transmission! The fewer flu victims, the fewer flu transmission to the rest of us. Prevent the spread of the flu doesn’t just help your own family—it helps all of us!
2.   He sneezes on his hands. “Mucus hygiene” means teaching your children (and yourself) NOT to sneeze and cough into your own hands. If your hands have infectious germs on them, you’re close to spreading them around. Instead, cough into the crook of your elbow. Washing and sanitizing hands is also crucial for preventing transmission.

3.     Johnny touches a doorknob. It may not be practical not to touch anything when you have to flu—but keeping flu victims out of the public, and in their own bedrooms, will at least keep most of their germs where other people won’t touch them.

4.     His sister Sarah touches the same doorknob. Sarah’s not sick—yet. She ought to not be hanging around Johnny’s stuff. Stay away from people with flu!

5.     Sarah rubs her eye with the same hand that has Johnny’s flu germs from the doorknob. This step is very important. Flu virus on your hands does not make you sick. You can still spread it around, but you won’t yourself get sick until the virus touches a part of your body it can invade: your eyes, your mouth, or your nose. If you can develop a lifelong habit of NOT rubbing your eyes, NOT picking ot rubbing your nose, and NOT sticking your fingers in your mouth you will NOT get sick as often. Try it. If you do have to rub your eyes, wash your hands first, or rub your eyes with a tissue.

6.     Boom. Sarah’s got the flu. There’s one more line of defense—vaccinations! Though imperfect, flu vaccines protect you from flu, even if the virus gets into your system.


This year’s flu vaccine so far is proving very effective. About 90% of people who’ve been vaccinated 2 or more weeks prior to contact are completely immune, and won’t get sick at all. The remaining 10% are only partially protected—they may still get flu, but it will be at least milder.

And keep in mind: everyone who doesn’t get the flu – because they’re vaccinated and/or because they’re following the advice in #1-6—is one less person spreading flu. Fewer get it, fewer spread it.

We’re all in this together, folks. Flu can be treated, but it’s even better to prevent it in the first place.

Earlier: Preventing and treating influenza

Mild belly aches and vomiting

September 27, 2008

Holly posted, “My 4 year old has recently been complaining of ‘tummy aches’ during different times of the day. She hasn’t been ill, running a fever, or consuming anything out of the ordinary. She has vomited several times in the last few days. Once she has emptied her stomach, she seems to feel fine. Later, however, a tummy ache returns. Are there any OTC meds ok to give a 4 year old that can help settle an upset tummy? Since no other symptoms of illness are apparent, how many days of occasional vomiting should be dealt with at home before calling the doctor’s office? Since no one else at home is getting sick, is it ok to send her to school?”

Ways to settle an upset tummy begin with some non-medical approaches, like making meals small, and staying away from foods that are rich in fat or protein. Sips of things like clear liquids or cola seem to help. A few studies have looked at ginger as a treatment for nausea, at it is probably effective—but I’m not sure you’ll get a four year old to gnaw on ginger. Most ginger ales contain only artificial flavors, not real ginger root.

A few safe OTC remedies include antacids like Maalox or Mylanta, or a medication for nausea called Emetrol. Pepto-bismal can soothe an upset stomach and help with nausea, but there are some people who advise against its use in children because it contains an aspirin-like ingredient. In the past, taking aspirin during an infection with influenza or chicken pox was associated with a serious liver condition called Reye Syndrome. Though the ingredient in Pepto has never been linked to Reye Syndrome, some people are still leery of it.

As long as she’s overall feeling well, I don’t think a trip to the doctor’s office is warranted for several days. But if this persists, she should be seen. Since she’s vomiting a few times a day, the most likely diagnosis is a viral infection. It would be best to keep her out of school for the protection of the other children until she is well. I know this isn’t always possible for working families, but keeping her home is the best way to prevent sickness from spreading to other children.